【深度分析】中美人文交流不应被蓄意阻隔(中

2021-04-06 15:24:45 外语培训 135

【小i导读】
人文交流作为各国开展合作、建立互信和消除分歧的重要手段,能够建立起跨国家、跨文化之间的友好桥梁。中国也一直秉承开放包容、尊重信任的态度,力图为中外语言交流合作、世界多元文化互学互鉴作出贡献。然而在美国,旨在促进文化传播的孔子学院却被两党分歧所绑架,因为特定的政治议程而受到打击。以下小i向大家分享一篇由教育部中外语言交流合作中心学者袁丽撰写的双语文章,一起来关注中美之间人文交流的现状及未来。
2月22日由北京大学中外人文交流研究基地协办的“对话合作,管控分歧——推动中美关系重回正轨”蓝厅论坛中分论坛三“重启人文交流”上专家学者们的精彩发言。
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中美作为两个世界大国,需要加深相互了解,这不仅有利于中美两国和两国人民,也有利于世界。语言是了解一个国家最好的钥匙。孔子学院作为一个纯粹的语言文化教育项目,旨在促进中文传播,加深各国人民对中国语言文化的了解,推动中外人文交流,增进国际理解。自开办以来,孔子学院作为中外人文交流的桥梁发挥了积极作用,也赢得包括美国在内的多个国家社会各界的肯定和欢迎。
但特朗普执政时期,孔子学院在美国遭到无理打压,中美正常的教育交流和人文交流遭遇寒流。近三年来,美国通过国会立法、行政部门施压等方式限制孔子学院,巨大的政治压力导致美国数十所孔子学院关闭,剥夺了美国学生向中国老师学习地道中文和亲身体验中国文化的机会,阻断了他们了解中国和与中国人民交流的桥梁。须知,在美国部分地区,孔子学院和孔子课堂是学生们唯一可以近距离接触和了解中国的地方。
拜登执政后,少数共和党议员仍在重复其对孔子学院的无端指控和陈词滥调,逼迫拜登政府和民主党通过行政令或立法方式关闭孔子学院,显示对所谓中国影响力的“零容忍”。但是,这些政客从未就自己对孔子学院的指控拿出过任何事实证据。他们只是出于意识形态偏见和一己政治私利,出于美两党争斗的需要,诬蔑抹黑孔子学院,将中美教育交流项目政治化,蓄意破坏中美人文交流合作。
拜登政府的政治事务副国务卿提名人、时任国务院发言人纽兰在2012年一次记者会上表示,孔子学院是加强两国人民相互了解的人文交流的一部分,是美国支持的事情。近期,纽兰却因为这番表态受到政治围攻。佛罗里达、田纳西等个别州的共和党州长罔顾州内反对声音,抛出关闭本州孔子学院的言论。这样的言行完全是从对华偏见和零和思维出发,拒绝客观对待孔子学院这样的人文交流项目,将个人的政治议程凌驾于选民利益之上,而罔顾选区和选民的声音。
毋庸置疑,孔子学院在美国到底发挥着什么样的作用,要不要关闭,孔子学院项目的美国参与方最清楚,也最有发言权。2018年时任北佛罗里达大学校长德兰尼在回复本州联邦参议员鲁比奥的信中公开表示,该校孔子学院运作并没有接到任何投诉,没有理由停止这一合作项目;孔子学院项目是使校园变得国际化的举措之一。
田纳西州孟菲斯大学艺术和科学学院院长尼农2019年在接受田纳西州媒体采访时表示,孔子学院向来接受着严格和透明的财务监督,它不仅是一个自律而严谨的学术机构,致力于传播中国文化,而且是一个得力的公关组织,协助当地政府和企业家更好地拓展中国市场。尼农表示,这样的监督和透明度让我们放心,孟菲斯大学的孔子学院与我们大学的价值、学术自由、教学研究目标都是高度吻合的。
习近平主席指出,中美合则两利、斗则俱伤,合作是双方唯一正确选择。两国应该共同努力、相向而行,秉持不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的精神,聚焦合作,管控分歧,推动中美关系健康稳定发展,给两国人民带来更多实实在在的利益。拜登政府也多次表态,美国将与中国在部分领域开展竞争,也可以在气候变化等广泛领域开展合作。
人文交流应该是中美两国开展合作的领域,而不应是竞争的领域,更不应被美国两党分歧所绑架。国之交在于民相亲。国家关系归根结底是人民之间的关系,人文交流是民众加深感情、沟通心灵的柔力。中美两国人民素怀友好感情,双方人民的友谊始终是中美关系发展的源头活水和重要基础,没有理由不持续加强两国人民之间的交流、了解和感情。美国新一届政府应尽快重启对华人文交流和教育合作,用好人文交流这条中美关系的“生命线”,支持中美机构间开展合作,以促成两国人民间更多交流,也为双方合作应对全球性挑战铺垫更坚实的基础。
US politics should not kidnap
American-Chinese people-to-people exchanges
Since US President Joe Biden took office on January 20, 2021, the divergence between Democrats and Republicans has increased markedly. Biden signed 17 executive orders on his first day in office. This included rejoining the World Health Organization (WHO) and Paris Agreement. It marked a drastic departure from Trump's policies.
Capitol Hill is also seeing growing divisions between the two parties. Republican lawmakers have repeatedly accused the Biden administration and the Democratic Party of being soft on China in both houses. They have urged the Democratic Party to pass its tough bill concerning China. At the confirmation hearings for cabinet candidates, including the secretary of state and the defense secretary, candidates were all grilled by Republican senators to make a tough stance toward China.
Even on the issue of Confucius Institutes, Republicans are repeating their groundless allegations. They are aiming to force the Biden administration to close Confucius Institutes. They are showing "zero tolerance" for the so-called Chinese influence.
The fact is this: The Confucius Institute is merely a program that focuses on Chinese language and culture education. The aim is to deepen international training and understanding of Chinese language and culture, and promoting people-to-people exchanges between China and the rest of the world.
Victoria Nuland, Biden's nominee for under secretary of state for political affairs has been criticized as a defender of the Confucius Institute program. Nuland, then an Obama administration spokeswoman at the State Department, said at a Department press briefing in May 2012, "This [Confucius Institute] is something that we support. It's part of the people-to-people understanding."
Some Republican governors, from Florida to Tennessee, have put their own political agendas above the interests of their constituencies. They are ignoring the opposition in their states and proposing to close the Confucius Institutes as rabid PR stunts.
In response to Senator Marco Rubio's letter to ask Florida educational institutions to end partnerships with Confucius Institutes in 2018, John Delaney, then president of the University of North Florida (UNF), said that the Confucius Institute on the UNF campus has prompted no complaints. He sees no reason to discontinue it.
In 2019, University of Memphis Provost Tom Nenon, a professor and dean in the College of Arts & Sciences, made similar comments, remarking that "close oversight" is maintained on the Confucius Institute to ensure it is "very transparent" about finances and activities. In a statement, Nenon said, "This oversight and transparency help us remain vigilant that the Confucius Institute at the University of Memphis remains aligned with our university values including academic freedom and objectivity in all of our teaching and research."
Some politicians, out of sheer ideological bias and political expediency for their own naked ambitions, make groundless allegations against Confucius Institutes. These moves have demonized and stigmatized the normal functioning of a China-US educational cooperation program. Worse still, they also go against the global trend of cultural exchanges and mutual learning among different civilizations
People-to-people exchanges can enhance connections between people and communicate their hearts. The Biden administration has also stated on several occasions that there will still be much more room for cooperation between China and the US even if competition between both countries exists.
It is the aspiration of the two peoples that the Biden administration will not be kidnapped by partisan differences. It is imperative to restart cultural exchanges and educational cooperation with Chinese people. We must work together to find solutions to jointly address global challenges.
中文来源:光明日报 (袁丽)
英文来源:Global Times(Yuan Li and Lu Yanjun)
原标题:《【深度分析】中美人文交流不应被蓄意阻隔(中英文对照)》
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